Watermarks can be unique to a particular brand and so
can give information on the date, technology and place of manufacture. Examples
of watermarks in the NAA collection were collected as part of this project. All
watermarks collected are presented in the form of a database.
The database includes images of each watermark as well as, where known, other useful
information: date of manufacture, date of usage, provenance, sheet thickness and
details of the mill or firm that made the sheet. The database is keyword searchable
and can also be searched by motif, based on protocols from the IPH standard.
20th Century Paper Quality Survey
The survey looked at paper quality in the NAA collection to identify how this has
varied between 1900 and 2013. This involved testing 10 samples per year. The tests
included pH, alum, carbonates, clay, and lignin. You can view the
full report (pdf, 2mb).
Paper Technology Chronology
Understanding the technology and materials used to create a sheet provides context
for how it was created, and may age. The chronology
starts in 1750 and goes through to 2010. The information given includes: papermaking
fibres, machinery, pulping techniques, bleaching processes, fillers, additives,
coatings, watermarks and mills.